Replication with GraphQL

With RxDB you can do a two-way replication with a GraphQL endpoint. This allows you to replicate data from the server into the client-side database and then query and modify it in realtime.

When the user is offline, you still can use the data and later sync it with the server when the client is online again like in other Offline-First systems.

Comparison to Couchdb-Sync


  • The GraphQL-replication is faster and needs less resources.
  • You do not need a couchdb-compliant endpoint, only a GraphQL-endpoint.


  • You can not replicate multiple databases with each other.
  • It is assumed that the GraphQL-server is the single source of truth.
  • You have to setup things at the server side while with couchdb-sync you only have to start a server.
  • The GraphQL replication does not support the replication of attachments.

NOTICE: To play around, check out the full example of the RxDB GraphQL replication with server and client


Add the GraphQL replication plugin

To enable the GraphQL replication, you have to add the replication-graphql plugin.

import { addRxPlugin } from 'rxdb';
import { RxDBReplicationGraphQLPlugin } from 'rxdb/plugins/replication-graphql';

Data Design

To use the GraphQL-replication you first have to ensure that your data is sortable by update time and your documents never get deleted. Instead, your response object should have a field indicating that a document has been deleted. The name of the field is configurable and handles truthy values follow JavaScript's rules, so you can use a GraphQL Boolean value or something more complex such as a string or timestamp, depending on your remote data source schema.

For example if your documents look like this,

    "id": "foobar",
    "name": "Alice",
    "lastName": "Wilson",
    "updatedAt": 1564783474,
    "deleted": false

Then your data is always sortable by updatedAt. This ensures that when RxDB fetches 'new' changes, it can send the latest updatedAt to the GraphQL-endpoint and then recieve all newer documents.

Deleted documents still exist but have deleted: true set. This ensures that when RxDB fetches new documents, even the deleted documents are send back and can be known at the client-side.

RxDB documents also have an internal _deleted field that is managed by RxDB when deleting documents or pulling deleted documents from a GraphQL server. If you use something like a deletedAt field instead and configure the deletedFlag option in the syncGraphQL to use the timestamp field, RxDB will still be able to keep track of deleted documents with an efficient Boolean flag.

GraphQL Server

At the server-side, there must exist an endpoint which returns newer rows when the last replicated document is used as input. For example lets say you create a Query feedForRxDBReplication which returns a list of newer documents, related to the given one, sorted by updatedAt.

For the push-replication, you also need a modifier which lets RxDB update data with a changed document as input.

input HumanInput {
    id: ID!,
    name: String!,
    lastName: String!,
    updatedAt: Int!,
    deleted: Boolean!
type Human {
    id: ID!,
    name: String!,
    lastName: String!,
    updatedAt: Int!,
    deleted: Boolean!
type Query {
    feedForRxDBReplication(lastId: String!, minUpdatedAt: Int!, limit: Int!): [Human!]!
type Mutation {
    # the mutations get arrays of documents as input.
    setHumans(humans: [HumanInput]): Human # returns the last of the mutated documents

The resolver would then look like:

const rootValue = {
    feedForRxDBReplication: args => {
        // sorted by updatedAt first and the id as second
        const sortedDocuments = documents.sort((a, b) => {
            if (a.updatedAt > b.updatedAt) return 1;
            if (a.updatedAt < b.updatedAt) return -1;
            if (a.updatedAt === b.updatedAt) {
                if ( > return 1;
                if ( < return -1;
            else return 0;

        // only return documents newer then the input document
        const filterForMinUpdatedAtAndId = sortedDocuments.filter(doc => {
            if (doc.updatedAt < args.minUpdatedAt) return false;
            if (doc.updatedAt > args.minUpdatedAt) return true;
            if (doc.updatedAt === args.minUpdatedAt) {
                // if updatedAt is equal, compare by id
                if ( > args.lastId) return true;
                else return false;

        // only return some documents in one batch
        const limited = filterForMinUpdatedAtAndId.slice(0, args.limit);

        return limited;
    // a modifier that updates the state on the server
    setHumans: args => {
        const docs = args.humans;
        let lastOne;
        docs.forEach(doc => {
            documents = documents.filter(d => !==;
            doc.updatedAt = Math.round(new Date().getTime() / 1000);
            lastOne = doc;
        // returns the last of the mutated documents
        return lastOne;

RxDB Client

Import the plugin

The graphql-replication is not part of the default-build of RxDB. You have to import the plugin before you can use it.

import { RxDBReplicationGraphQLPlugin } from 'rxdb/plugins/replication-graphql';

Pull replication

For the pull-replication, you first need a pullQueryBuilder. This is a function that gets the last replicated document as input and returns an object with a GraphQL-query and its variables (or a promise that resolves to the same object). RxDB will use the query builder to construct what is later send to the GraphQL endpoint.

const pullQueryBuilder = doc => {
    if (!doc) {
        // the first pull does not have a start-document
        doc = {
            id: '',
            updatedAt: 0
    const query = `{
        feedForRxDBReplication(lastId: "${}", minUpdatedAt: ${doc.updatedAt}, limit: 5) {
    return {
        variables: {}

With the queryBuilder, you can then setup the pull-replication.

const replicationState = myCollection.syncGraphQL({
    url: '', // url to the GraphQL endpoint
    pull: {
        queryBuilder: pullQueryBuilder, // the queryBuilder from above
        modifier: doc => doc, // (optional) modifies all pulled documents before they are handeled by RxDB. Returning null will skip the document.
        dataPath: undefined, // (optional) specifies the object path to access the document(s). Otherwise, the first result of the response data is used.
         * Amount of documents that the remote will send in one request.
         * If the response contains less then [batchSize] documents,
         * RxDB will assume there are no more changes on the backend
         * that are not replicated.
         * This value is the same as the limit in the feedForRxDBReplication() schema.
        batchSize: 5
    deletedFlag: 'deleted', // the flag which indicates if a pulled document is deleted
    live: true // if this is true, rxdb will watch for ongoing changes and sync them, when false, a one-time-replication will be done

Push replication

For the push-replication, you also need a queryBuilder. Here, the builder recieves a changed document as input which has to be send to the server. It also returns a GraphQL-Query and its data.

const pushQueryBuilder = docs => {
    const query = `
        mutation CreateHumans($humans: [HumanInput]) {
            setHumans(humans: $humans) {
                id # GraphQL does not allow returning void, so we return one id.
    const variables = {
        humans: docs
    return {

With the queryBuilder, you can then setup the push-replication.

const replicationState = myCollection.syncGraphQL({
    url: '', // url to the GraphQL endpoint
    push: {
        queryBuilder: pushQueryBuilder, // the queryBuilder from above
         * batchSize (optional)
         * Amount of document that will be pushed to the server in a single request.
        batchSize: 5,
         * modifier (optional)
         * Modifies all pushed documents before they are send to the GraphQL endpoint.
         * Returning null will skip the document.
        modifier: doc => doc
    deletedFlag: 'deleted', // the flag which indicates if a pulled document is deleted
    live: true // if this is true, rxdb will watch for ongoing changes and sync them

Of course you can start the push- and the pull-replication in a single call to myCollection.syncGraphQL().

Using subscriptions

For the pull-replication, RxDB will run the pull-function every 10 seconds to fetch new documents from the server. This means that when a change happens on the server, RxDB will, in the worst case, take 10 seconds until the changes is replicated to the client.

To improve this, it is recommended to setup GraphQL Subscriptions which will trigger the replication cycle when a change happens on the server.

import {
} from 'subscriptions-transport-ws';

// start the replication
const replicationState = myCollection.syncGraphQL({
    url: '',
    pull: {
    deletedFlag: 'deleted', // the flag which indicates if a pulled document is deleted
    live: true,
     * Because we use the subscriptions as notifiers,
     * we can set the liveInterval to a very height value.
    liveInterval: 60 * 1000

// setup the subscription client
const wsClient = new SubscriptionClient(
    'ws://', {
        reconnect: true,

const query = `subscription onHumanChanged {
    humanChanged {
const changeObservable = wsClient.request({ query });
// subscribe to all events
    next(data) {
         * When a change happens on the remote, call .notifyAboutRemoteChange() on the replicationState.
         * This will trigger the pull-handler and download changes from the server if necessary.

Helper Functions

RxDB provides the helper functions graphQLSchemaFromRxSchema(), pullQueryBuilderFromRxSchema() and pushQueryBuilderFromRxSchema() that can be used to generate the GraphQL Schema from the RxJsonSchema. To learn how to use them, please inspect the GraphQL Example.

Conflict Resolution

RxDB assumes that the Conflict Resolution will happen on the server side. When the clients sends a document to the server which causes a conflict, this has to be resolved there and then the resulting document can be synced down to RxDB. While CouchDB uses revision-flags for conflicts, you can use any logic like relying on the updatedAt date or other flags.


When you call myCollection.syncGraphQL() it returns a RxGraphQLReplicationState which can be used to subscribe to events, for debugging or other functions.


Returns true if the replication is stopped. This can be if a non-live replication is finished or a replication got canceled.

replicationState.isStopped(); // true/false


Changes the headers for the replication after it has been set up.

    Authorization: `...`


Returns a Promise that is resolved as soon as the initial replication is done.

await replicationState.awaitInitialReplication();
console.log('initial sync done, client data is equal to server data');


Triggers a replication cycle with the server. This is done automatically if the data changes on the client side or the pull-interval is called. This returns a Promise which is resolved when the run-cycle is done. Calling run() many times is no problem because it is queued internally.



Should be called when the remote tells the client that a new change has happened at the remote. Might or might not trigger a new run() cycle, depending on when it is called and if another cycle is already running. Use this inside of websocket handlers.


Cancels the replication. This is done autmatically if the RxCollection or it's RxDatabase is destroyed.

await replicationState.cancel();


An Observable that emits each document that is received from the endpoint.


An Observable that emits each document that is send to the endpoint.


An Observable that emits each error that happens during the replication. Use this if something does not work for debugging. RxDB will handle network errors automatically, other errors must be solved by the developer.

replicationState.error$.subscribe(error => {
    console.log('something was wrong');

GraphQL errors are wrapped in a RxReplicationError, which has a payload property with information to help you handle the underlying error. The payload has a type field with a value of "pull" or "push", corresponding to an error in either a GraphQL pull or push replication operation, respectively. If the error occurs doing a push, the payload also contains a documentData property, which corresponds to the document data supplied to the push query builder. Notice: You may see errors in this observable that are not RxReplicationError. Replication may fail for reasons unrelated to the GraphQL service. E.g., your PouchDB or LokiJS database may have issues in which case a general error will be generated and passed on.

As an example, you can try to recover from errors like so:

replicationState.error$.subscribe((error) => {
    if (error.type === 'pull') {
        console.log('error pulling from GraphQL server', error.innerErrors);
    } else if (error.type === 'push') {
        if (error.innerErrors && error.innerErrors.length > 0) {
            const graphQLError = error.innerErrors[0];

            // In this hypothetical case, there's a remote database uniqueness constraint being violated due to two
            // clients pushing an object with the same property value. With the document data, you can decide how best
            // to resolve the issue. In this case, the client that pushed last "loses" and we delete the object since
            // the one it conflicts with will be pulled down during the next pull replication event.
            // The `graphQLError` structure is dictated by your remote GraphQL service. The field names are likely
            // to be different.
            if (graphQLError.code === 'constraint-violation' && graphQLError.constraintName === "unique_profile_name") {
                    .then((doc) => {
        } else {
            console.log('error pushing document to GraphQL server', documentData);
    } else {
        // General error occurred. E.g., issue communicating with local database.
        console.log('something was wrong');


An Observable that emits true when the replication is canceled, false if not.


An Observable that emits true when the replication is doing something, false when not.

NOTICE: To play around, check out the full example of the RxDB GraphQL replication with server and client

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